Coastal and Oceanic Landform (22.Estuary)

                                                                                                                                         Back to Coastal and Oceanic Landform

  • Most estuaries were formed during the Holocene epoch by the flooding of river-eroded.
  • An Estuary is a fully enclosed body of water along the coast.
  • Freshwater from;
  • It  meets &  mixes with salt water from the ocean.
  • Estuaries transition from land - sea.

  •  They are protected from;
                                                -Ocean waves
River Nith estuary
River Nith estuary
Estuarine  are;
                    1. The most productive on earth.
                    2.Creating more organic matter each year than comparably-sized areas of forest.
                   4.Agricultural land.
River Exe estuary
River Exe estuary

  • About 60% of the world's population living along estuaries and the coast.
  • Estuaries support unique communities of plants &  animals especially adapted for life at the margin of the sea.

  • Different habitat  found in estuaries, including 
                               shallow open waters
                               freshwater and salt marshes
                               sandy beaches
                               sand flats
                               rocky shores
                               oyster reefs
                               mangrove forests
                               river deltas
                               tidal pools
  •  Estuaries provide places for recreational activities, scientific study, &  aesthetic enjoyment.
  • Thousands of species of birds, mammals, fish, wildlife depend on estuarine habitats as places to live, feed, and reproduce.
  •  estuaries provide ideal areas for migratory birds to rest and re-fuel during their long journeys.
  • Because many species of fish and wildlife rely on the sheltered waters of estuaries as protected spawning places, estuaries are often called the "nurseries of the sea."

Río de la Plata estuary
Río de la Plata estuary
  • Estuaries uplands carries;
                                 pollutants to estuaries. 

amazon estuary
amazon estuary

  • The  filtration process creates cleaner and clearer water, which benefits both people and marine life.
  •  Wetland plants and soils  act as natural buffers between the land and ocean.
  •  Absorbing flood waters and dissipating storm surges.

Classification on geomorpology;
1.Drowned river valleys
2.Lagoon type
3.Bar built type
4.Fjoord type
Estuary of the Klamath River in Northern California
Estuary of the Klamath River in Northern California
Classification on water circulation
1.Salt wedge
2.Partially mixed
3.Vertically homogenous
Estuary mouth
Estuary mouth

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