Erosion Landform (26. Valley )


                                                                                                                                                      Back to Erosion Landform 
Bridal Veil Falls,Yosemite National Park
Bridal Veil Falls,Yosemite National Park

  • A valley called as dale.
  • A very deep river valley called a canyon/ gorge.
  • U-shaped / V-shaped are formation of valleys.
  • Through the valley which a river runs.
  • A small, secluded wooded valley known as;

                   a dell 
                   a glen (Scotland)
  • A wide, flat valley is known as strath.
  • mountain cove is a small valley.
  • Which  results from  erosion of a geologic window.
  • A small valley surrounded by mountains/ ridges.
  • It is sometimes known as a hollow.
Death Valley in bloom.
Death Valley in bloom.


  •  A deep, narrow valley is known as a coon.Such as;

                                        canyons
                                        ravines
                                        gorges
                                        gullies
                                        kloofs
  • The exact shape depend on stream flowing through it.
  • Rivers with steep gradients produce steep walls.
  • Shallower slopes produce broader & gentler valleys.
  • Some broad V examples ;
                                            Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park
                                            Grand Canyon NP
                                            Inn valley 

  • First human complex societies originated in river valleys.

                           e.g.    Nile                                          Tigris-Euphrates
                                     Indus                                       Ganges
                                    Yangtze                                    Huang He
                                    Mississippi                               Amazon

  • vale is a wide river valley.
  • usually with wide flood plain / flat valley bottom.
  • Vales commonly occur between  escarpment slopes of pairs of chalk downs.


U-shaped valley
U-shaped valley in Glacier National Park in Montana, United States.
U-shaped valley in Glacier National Park in Montana, United States.

  • Carved by glaciers.
  • It is normally U-shaped. 
  • Often littered with small boulders.
  • That were transported ice.
  • Floor gradient doesn't affect valley's shape.
  • Continuously flowing glaciers(ice age) & large-sized glaciers carve wide, deep incised valleys.

Carved valleys:
  • Yosemite Valley
  • Side valleys
  • St. Mary River,Glacier National Park,Montana, USA.


Tunnel valley





  • A tunnel valley i
                                       Large
                                       Long
                                       U-shaped
  • Originally cut under the glacial ice.
  •  It is near the margin of continental ice sheets.
  • Long: up to 100 km
  • Wide: 4 km 
  • Deep: 400 m 
  • Formed by sub glacial erosion by water.
  • Served as sub glacial drainage pathways.
  • It carrying large volumes of melt water. 
  • Their cross-sections exhibit steep-sided flanks similar to fjord walls, and their flat bottoms are typical of subglacial glacial erosion.

Hanging valleys


  • A hanging valley is a tributary valley.
  • The floor at a higher relief .
  • They have U-shaped valleys.
  • Waterfalls form at or near the outlet of the upper valley.
  • Hanging valleys are product of varying rates of erosion of the main valley.


Hollow Valley

  • It is a small valley/dry stream bed
  • Formed by river valleys.
  • e.g.Mansfield Hollow

e.g
  • Aburra Valley (Colombia)
  • Barossa Valley (Australia)
  • Cauca Valley (Colombia)
  • Central Valley (California) (California, United States)
  • Danube Valley (Eastern Europe)
  • Death Valley (California, United States)




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